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Botulinum toxin injection (injection technologies)



In aesthetic cosmetology, the main direction of application of botulinum toxin is the correction of facial wrinkles. Over the past decade, botulinum toxin has become one of the most sought-after tools for a cosmetologist and plastic surgeon. Botox (Botox) is today one of the most famous drugs in the world, used in aesthetic medicine. Botulinum toxin injections are one of the non-surgical methods for correcting facial wrinkles in various facial areas (facial rejuvenation).



It is known that already in 1820 military physician Julius Kerner described the classic symptoms of a dangerous disease - botulism, which manifests a paralysis of skeletal muscles in a patient after eating poor-quality food. It is curious that only in 1973 (more than a century later), Scott reported the first experimental application of botulinum toxin. Finally, it was only in 1989 that botulinum toxin was approved for clinical use in medicine (neurology, orthopedics, gastroenterology, ophthalmology and other fields).

In the field of cosmetology, botulinum toxin was approved for use only in 2002. Over the next few years, botulinum toxin has gained popularity in the international arena as a safe and effective preparation for correcting wrinkles on the face. Now in the pharmaceutical market there are many generic products of various manufacturers that are used in cosmetology. To date, there has been a significant increase in the list of possible areas for injections of botulinum toxin, that is, it is believed that any mimic muscles that contribute to the manifestation of any age-related changes can be corrected by injections of botulinum toxin.

This neurotoxin is a product of the life of microorganisms of Clostridium botulinum (gram-positive anaerobic). There are eight different serotypes of pathogens: A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, and G, seven of which produce exotoxin. There are 2 types of neurotoxin (A and B), of which the only serotype A is approved for cosmetic applications. The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin is the blockade of membrane receptors in the peripheral cholinergic neuromuscular synapses with an active neurotoxin, which leads to an end to the release of acetylcholine and chemical denervation of the muscle, and, accordingly, muscle paralysis.

It should be noted that this is a temporary effect, since new nerve endings are formed and a gradual recovery of acetylcholine transfer occurs in neuromuscular synapses.